Several animal species also engage in interspecies communication, like apes, whales, dolphins, elephants, and dogs. For example, different species of monkeys use common signals to cooperate when threatened by a common predator. An example of interspecies communication involving humans is found in their relation to pets. For example, acoustic signals play a central role in communication with dogs. Dogs are able to learn to respond to various commands, like “sit” and “come”.

  • The private sector, as owners and operators of the majority of communications infrastructure, is the primary entity responsible for protecting sector infrastructure and assets.
  • On this view, an exchange is more or less interpersonal depending on how many people are present, whether it happens face-to-face rather than through telephone or email, and whether it focuses on the relationship between the communicators.
  • Use AI for wireless challenges such as modulation scheme identification, RF fingerprinting, spectrum monitoring, and signal classification.
  • As we believe that transparency strengthens the quality of peer review, we are now moving to publish the exchanges between authors and reviewers for all research articles submitted from November 2022 onward and accepted for publication.
  • Some forms of non-verbal communication happen using artifacts, such as drums, smoke, batons, or traffic lights.

For a landline telephone call, the person calling is the source and their telephone is the transmitter. It translates the message into an electrical signal that travels through the wire, which acts as the channel. The person taking the call is the destination and their telephone is the receiver. The Shannon–Weaver model includes an in-depth discussion of how noise can distort the signal and how successful communication can be achieved despite noise. This can happen, for example, by making the message partially redundant so that decoding is possible nonetheless. Other influential linear transmission models include Gerbner’s model and Berlo’s model.

Other species

For simplex systems, signals flow only in one direction from the sender to the receiver, like in radio, television, or screens displaying arrivals and departures at airports. Half-duplex systems allow two-way exchanges but signals can only flow in one direction at a time, like walkie-talkies or police radios. In the case of full-duplex systems, signals can flow in both directions at the same time, like regular telephone and internet.

But there are also conscious intentional forms, like shaking hands or raising a thumb. However, this paradigm has shifted and a lot of importance is given to non-verbal communication in contemporary research. For example, many judgments about the nature and behavior of other people are based on non-verbal cues, like their facial expressions and tone of voice. Some theorists claim that the majority of the ideas and information conveyed happens this way. According to Ray Birdwhistell, for example, 65% of communication happens non-verbally.


This is because the purpose of communication is usually some form of cooperation, which happens mostly within a species while different species are often in conflict with each other in their competition over resources. This occurs especially when there are symbiotic relationships and significantly less for parasitic or predator-prey relationships. Some fungal species Communications communicate by releasing pheromones into the external environment. It happens by releasing hormone-like molecules, which other bacteria detect and respond to. This process is used to monitor the environment for other bacteria and to coordinate population-wide responses, for example, by sensing the density of bacteria and regulating gene expression accordingly.